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Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Table of Contents
Glossary of Terms CHAPTER 6Protecting Your System:Information Security Chapter 6 in a Nutshell:Introduction to lớn Information Security
Commonly Asked Questions
Policy Issues
Information Security Countermeasures
Information Security Checklist The terms data and information are often used synonymously, but information refers to data that have meaning. For example, "87 percent" is data. It has no meaning by itself until it is reported as a "graduation rate," and then it becomes information.

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Introduction lớn Information SecurityAs stated throughout this document, one of an organization"s mostvaluable assets is its information. Local, state, và federal laws requirethat certain types of information (e.g., individual student records) beprotected from unauthorized release (see Appendix B for a FERPA Fact
Sheet). This facet of information security is often referred to as protectingconfidentiality. While confidentiality is sometimes mandated by law,common sense and good practice suggest that even non-confidentialinformation in a system should be protected as well-not necessarilyfrom unauthorized release as much as from unauthorized modification andunacceptable influences on its accessibility. Components of Information Security20Confidentiality:Preventing unauthorized disclosure and use ofinformationIntegrity:Preventing unauthorized creation,modification, or deletion of informationAvailability:Preventing unauthorized delay or denial ofinformationCommonly Asked QuestionsQ. If an organization maintains physical, software, and user accesssecurity, isn"t information security addressed by default?A. Yes and no. Information backups and their storage are surely saferwhen the building is secure, software is used properly, andunauthorized users are effectively restricted. However, these securityfeatures are meaningless if the information that is being backed up andstored wasn"t maintained in a sound way in the first place. While there isno doubt that physical, software, and user access security strategies all contribute khổng lồ protecting information, ignoring those initiatives that areaimed directly at securing information is not a wise plan. While encryption prevents others from reading your information, encrypted files can still be damaged or destroyed so that they are no longer of any use to lớn you.Q. Isn"t there software that can protect my information?A. Yes, a variety of software products can help your organization in itseffort lớn secure its information và system, but only a thorough, well-conceived,and committed effort khổng lồ develop & implement an overarchingsecurity plan will prove effective in the long run.Q. Doesn"t it make sense to just go ahead & encrypt all information?A. Not necessarily. Encryption & decryption are time consuming. Ifinformation is confidential, then additional time for encrypting anddecrypting makes sense. But if the files aren"t confidential, why would youslow down processing tốc độ for an unnecessary step? và whileencryption is a good practice for sensitive information or informationthat is being transmitted over unsecured lines, it should be noted that it isnot a complete security strategy in itself. Encrypting information protectsfiles from breaches in confidentiality, but the risks of unauthorized oraccidental modification (including destruction) and/or denial of use are stillreal.Guidelines for security policy development can be found in Chapter 3.Policy IssuesPerhaps more than any other aspect of system security, protectinginformation requires specific procedural and behavioral activities.Information security requires that data files be properly created, labeled,stored, and backed up. If you consider the number of files that eachemployee uses, these tasks clearly constitute a significant undertaking.Policy-makers can positively affect this effort by conducting an accuraterisk assessment (including properly identifying sensitive informationmaintained in the system). They should also provide organizational supportto the security manager as he or she implements and monitors securityregulations. The security manager must be given the authority & budgetnecessary for training staff appropriately and subsequently enforcinginformation security procedures at all levels of the organizational hierarchy.A final consideration for policy-makers is information retention anddisposal. All information has a finite life cycle, and policy-makers shouldmake sure that mechanisms are in place khổng lồ ensure that information that isno longer of use is disposed of properly.As discussed more completely in Chapter 2, a threat is any action, actor, or event that contributes to lớn risk. Information Threats (Examples)As discussed more completely in Chapter 2, a threat is any action,actor, or sự kiện that contributes khổng lồ risk. Examples of information threatsinclude:Natural events (e.g., lightning strikes, & aging và dirty media)Intentional acts of destruction (e.g., hacking và viruses)Unintentionally destructive acts (e.g., accidental downloading ofcomputer viruses, programming errors, & unwise use of magneticmaterials in the office)A countermeasure is a step planned & taken in opposition to another act or potential act.Information Security CountermeasuresThe following countermeasures address information security concernsthat could affect your site(s). These strategies are recommended whenrisk assessment identifies or confirms the need to counter potentialbreaches in your system"s information security.Countermeasures come in a variety of sizes, shapes, và levelsof complexity. This document endeavors to describe a range ofstrategies that are potentially applicable khổng lồ life in educationorganizations. In an effort to maintain this focus, thosecountermeasures that are unlikely khổng lồ be applied in educationorganizations are not included here. If after your risk assessment,for example, your security team determines that your organizationrequires high-end countermeasures like retinal scanners or voiceanalyzers, you will need lớn refer to other security references andperhaps hire a reliable technical consultant.Transmit Information Securely (including e-mail):Use thư điện tử only for routine office communication: Never sendsensitive information as e-mail. If e-mail absolutely must beused, encrypt the file & send it as an attachment rather than inthe text of the e-mail message.Encrypt everything before it leaves your workstation: Even your password needs to be encrypted before leaving the workstationon its way to lớn the network server-otherwise it could beintercepted as it travels network connections.Physically protect your data encryption devices và keys: Storethem away from the computer but remember where you putthem. Use the same common-sense principles of protection youshould be giving your ngân hàng card"s personal identification number(PIN).Inform staff that all messages sent with or over the organization"scomputers belong khổng lồ the organization: This is a nice way of sayingthat everything in the office is subject to lớn monitoring.Use dial-up communication only when necessary: vì chưng so only after the line has been satisfactorily evaluated for security. Vị notpublicly list dial-up communication telephone numbers.Confirm that outside networks from which there are dial-ins satisfy your security requirements: Install automatic terminalidentification, dial-back, và encryption features (technicalschemes that protect transmissions to và from off-site users).Verify the receiver"s authenticity before sending informationanywhere: Ensure that users on the receiving over are who theyrepresent themselves to lớn be by verifying:Something they should know-a password or encryption key;this is the least expensive measure but also the least secure.Something they should have-for example, an electronic keycard or smart card.Something they are-biometrics like fingerprinting, voicerecognition, and retinal scans; these strategies are moreexpensive but also more secure.Consider setting up pre-arranged transmission times with regularinformation trading partners: If you know khổng lồ expect transmissionsfrom your trading partners at specific times và suddenly findyourself receiving a message at a different time, you"ll know toscrutinize that message more closely. Is it really your tradingpartner sending the message? Why has the pre-arranged timebeen ignored? Has the message been intercepted andconsequently knocked off schedule?
Maintain security when shipping và receiving materials: Whensending sensitive information through the mail, or by messengeror courier, require that all outside service providers meet orexceed your security requirements.Select only those countermeasures that meet perceived needs as identified during risk assessment andsupport security policy.Countermeasures lượt thích biometrics are probably beyond the realm of possibility (and necessity) in most, if not all, education organizations. Pre-arranged transmission times mix for the middle of the night (e.g., 1:37 a.m.) may seem odd, butthey can increase security because there is less traffic on telephone lines & fewer hackers snooping around at such odd hours.Present Information for Use in a Secure and Protected Way:Practice "views" và "table-design" applications: A "view" selectsonly certain fields within a table of information for display, basedon the user"s access rights. Other table fields are excluded fromthe user"s view and are thus protected from use. For example,although a school record system may contain a range ofinformation about each student, Food Services staff can viewonly information related khổng lồ their work & Special Educationstaff can view only information related lớn their work. This typeof system maintains information much more securely thantraditional paper systems, while at the same time increasingstatistical utility & accountability options.Use "key identifiers" to liên kết segregated information: If recordinformation is maintained in a segregated manner (e.g., testingfiles are kept in a different database than special education files)for security purposes, a common tệp tin identifier (e.g., a Social
Security Number) can be used khổng lồ match records withoutunnecessarily divulging the identity of individuals andcompromising confidentiality.Back up Information Appropriately (see Chapter 4):Back up not only information, but also the programs you use toaccess information: Back up operating system utilities so thatyou retain access khổng lồ them even if your hard drive goes down.Also maintain current copies of critical application softwareand documentation as securely as if they were sensitive data.Caution: Some proprietary software providers may limit anorganization"s legal right lớn make copies of programs, but mostallow for responsible backup procedures. Check with yoursoftware provider.Consider using backup software that includes an encryption optionwhen backing up sensitive information: Encryption providesadditional security that is well worth the extra effort, since itensures that even if unauthorized users access your backup files,they still can"t break confidentiality without also having access to your encryption key. If you adopt this recommendation, be sure to lớn change your encryption key regularly.Verify that your backups are written khổng lồ the disk or tape accurately:Choose a backup program that has a verification feature.Rotate backup tapes: Although backup tapes are usually quitereliable, they tend to thua thảm data over time when under constantuse. Retire tapes after two khổng lồ three months of regular use (i.e.,about 60 uses) to lớn a backup activity that requires less regular use(e.g., program backups). Also note that routine tape drivecleaning can result in longer tape life.Maintain a log of all backup dates, locations, & responsiblepersonnel: Accountability is an excellent motivator for gettingthings done properly. Remember to lớn store the logs securely.Avoid over-backing up: Too many backup files can confuse usersand thereby increase the possibility of exposing sensitiveinformation. Clear hard drives, servers, và other storagemedia that contain old backup files to lớn save space once you haveproperly secured (and verified) the last complete và partialbackup.Test your backup system: This point has been made numeroustimes throughout the document, but it truly cannot beoveremphasized!Many organizations prefer that users back up only their own data files-leaving software andoperating system backups in the responsible hands of the security manager or system administrator.

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Store Information Properly (see Chapter 5):Apply recommended storage principles as found in this document toboth original and backup files alike: Backup files require the samelevels of security as vày the master files (e.g., if the original file isconfidential, so is its backup).Clearly label disks, tapes, containers, cabinets, and other storagedevices: Contents và sensitivity should be prominently markedso that there is less chance of mistaken identity.Segregate sensitive information: Never store sensitive informationin such a way that it commingles with other data on floppydisks or other removable data storage media.Restrict handling of sensitive information khổng lồ authorized personnel:Information, programs, và other data should be entered into, orexported from, the system only through acceptable channels andby staff with appropriate clearance.Write-protect important files: Write-protection limitsaccidental or malicious modification of files. Note that whilewrite-protection is effective against some viruses, it is by nomeans adequate vi khuẩn protection in itself.Communicate clearly and immediately about security concerns:Train staff to lớn promptly notify the system administrator/securitymanager when data are, or are suspected of being, lost ordamaged.Create a media library if possible: Storing backups andsensitive material in a single location allows for security lớn beconcentrated (and perhaps even intensified). Note, however,that an on-site media library is not a substitute for off-sitebackup protection.It Really Happens!As Principal Brown"s secretary, Marsha didn"t have time for all the difficulties she was having with hercomputer--well, it wasn"t really her computer that was having problems, but her most important files (and thatwas worse). Fed up with having khổng lồ retype so many lost files, she finally called in the vendor who had sold theschool all of its equipment. The vendor appeared at her office promptly & asked her lớn describe the problem."Well," Marsha explained, "I keep a copy of all of my important files on a 31/2 inch disk, but when I go touse them, the files seem lớn have disappeared. I know that I"m copying them correctly, so I just can"t understandit. I don"t know if it"s the word processing software or what, but I"m tired of losing all of my importantfiles."The vendor asked whether it was possible that Marsha was using a bad disk. "I thought about that," shereplied as if prepared for the question, "but it has happened with three different disks. It just has khổng lồ be somethingelse." Marsha reached for a disk that was held to the metal filing cabinet next lớn her desk by a colorfulmagnet. "You try it.""That"s a very attractive magnet," the vendor said as Marsha handed over the disk. "Do you always useit to hold up your disks?""Yes, it was a souvenir from Dr. Brown"s last conference. I just think it"s beautiful. Thanks for noticing.""It is beautiful," the vendor replied, "but you know that it"s also the root of all your problems. Every timeyou expose a disk lớn that magnet, it erases the files. That"s just the way magnets and computer disks getalong-like oil and water. Try storing the disk away from the magnet & your troubles, not your files, will soon disappear."Dispose of Information in a Timely and Thorough Manner:Institute a specific information retention và disposal policy asdetermined by the organization"s needs & legal requirements: Alldata have a finite life cycle. Consult local, federal, và stateregulations for guidance before implementing the following:Establish a realistic retention policy.Mark files to indicate the contents, their expected life cycle,and appropriate destruction dates.Do not simply erase or reformat media, but overwrite it withrandom binary code. Sophisticated users can still accessinformation even after it has been erased or reformatted,whereas overwriting actually replaces the discardedinformation.Consider degaussing (a technique khổng lồ erase information on amagnetic media by introducing it khổng lồ a stronger magneticfield) as an erasure option.Burn, shred, or otherwise physically destroy storage media(e.g., paper) that cannot be effectively overwritten ordegaussed.Clean tapes, disks, và hard drives that have stored sensitive databefore reassigning them: Never share disks that have held sensitivedata unless they have been properly cleaned. Also remember toclean magnetic storage truyền thông before returning it khổng lồ a vendor fortrade-ins or disposal.It Really Happens!Trent couldn"t believe his eyes. Displayed before him on a monitor in the high school computer lab werethe grades of every student in Mr. Russo"s sophomore English classes: Student Name Grades Comments Linda Foster: C-, C, C+, C Improving slightly, but unable khổng lồ make sufficient gains; a candidate for learning disability testing?
All Trent had done was hit the "undelete" function in the word processing software khổng lồ correct a savingmistake he had made, & suddenly a hard drive full of Mr. Russo"s files were there for the taking. Luckily for Mr. Russo, his sophomores, & the school, Trent realized that something was very wrong. He asked the labsupervisor, Ms. Jackson, where the computers had come from."Most of them have been recycled," she admitted. "Teachers và administrators were given upgrades thisyear, so their old machines were put to lớn good use in the labs. They should still be powerful enough lớn handleyour word processing. Why?"Trent showed Ms. Jackson what he had uncovered about the sophomore English students. She gasped,"Oh my goodness, they gave us all these computers without clearing the hard drives properly. I bet it"s thatway across the district. Trent, you may have just saved us from a potentially disastrous situation. That informationis private and certainly shouldn"t be sitting here for anyone in the computer lab lớn see. I"ve got somephone calls to lớn make!"Retaining data beyond its useful life exposes the organization khổng lồ unnecessary risk.21Even if a vendor replaces a hard drive, require that the old one be returned so that you can verify that it has been cleaned & disposed of properly.Information Security ChecklistWhile it may be tempting to refer to lớn the following checklist as your securityplan, to vì chưng so would limit the effectiveness of the recommendations.They are most useful when initiated as part of a larger plan khổng lồ develop andimplement security policy throughout an organization. Other chapters inthis document also address ways to customize policy to lớn your organization"sspecific needs-a concept that should not be ignored if you want tomaximize the effectiveness of any given guideline.Security Checklist for Chapter 6The brevity of a checklist can be helpful, but it in no way makes up for the detail of the text. Check Points for Information Security Transmit Information Securely (including e-mail) Is e-mail used for only the most routine of non-sensitive officecommunication? Is everything, including passwords, encrypted before leaving userworkstations? Are encryption keys properly secured? Have policy goals and objectivesbeen translated into organizational security regulations that are designedto modify staff behavior? Is dial-up communication avoided as much as is possible? Are outside networks required to lớn meet your security expectations? Is the identity of information recipients verified before transmission? Have times for information transmission been pre-arranged with regular trading partners? Are security issues considered before shipping sensitive materials?
Accomplished? Present Information for Use in a Secure & Protected Way Are "views" và "table-design" applications being practiced? Are "key identifiers" used when linking segregated records? Backup Information Appropriately Are programs that are used lớn access information backed up? Does backup software include an encryption option that is used? Does backup software include a verification feature that is used? Are backup tapes retired after a reasonable amount of use? Is a log of all backup dates, locations, & responsible personnel keptand maintained securely? Is an effort made khổng lồ avoid "over-backing up" (i.e., are old backupsremoved lớn avoid "clutter")? Does the backup system pass regularly administered tests of itseffectiveness? Store Information Properly Are recommended storage principles applied khổng lồ master files & theirbackups alike? Are disks, tapes, containers, cabinets, & other storage devices clearlylabeled? Is sensitive information segregated (i.e., is it maintained separately fromnormal use information at all times)? Is the handling of sensitive information restricted lớn authorizedpersonnel? Are important files write-protected? Does staff know khổng lồ communicate security concerns immediately? Has a secure truyền thông media library been created as is possible? Dispose of Information in a Timely and Thorough Manner Has an information retention và disposal policy been implemented ? Are magnetic truyền thông media that contain sensitive information properly cleanedbefore reuse or disposal?

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21 Ways khổng lồ “Give Good No”

Saying “no” can be really hard. But Christine Carter has a three-step plan to get there.

By Christine Carter | November 13, 2014

We are coming lớn that time of the year that is both blessed and cursed with zillions of invitations. Here are some that are in my email right now: Can you meet me for coffee to lớn help me with my book proposal? Will you bring a snack khổng lồ the 8th grade buổi tiệc ngọt on December 19th? Are you coming khổng lồ our housewarming party? Can you help with my son’s college applications? vì chưng you want khổng lồ take the kids khổng lồ see “The Nutcracker” this year?


As much as I’d like to bởi vì all of these things, I can’t. When I take on everything that comes my way, I find that I start staying up late in order khổng lồ get everything done. Và then, tired, I start pressing snooze instead of meditating in the morning. Before I know it, I’m too tired khổng lồ exercise, too, something that is essential for my wellbeing.

It’s a slippery slope that starts with me taking care of other people’s needs at the expense of my own, and ends with me being too tired (and sometimes sick) khổng lồ take care of anybody’s needs, my own included (much less vì anything fun, lượt thích go lớn a party). Perhaps this is obvious, but just khổng lồ spell it out: When we get sick and tired, we have a hard time feeling happy, & a hard time fulfilling our potential, both at home and at work.


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From the GGSC khổng lồ your bookshelf: 30 science-backed tools for well-being.

But saying “no” can be really hard—I hate making people feel bad for even asking. It takes practice lớn say no in a way that doesn’t offend people, much less lớn say it in a way that makes folks feel happy they asked. Giving no that good takes practice. Here is my three-step plan.

Step One: Prepare yourself khổng lồ say “no”

It is much easier khổng lồ say no to an invitation when we have a concrete reason for doing so—a way to lớn justify our refusal beyond the vague notion that we should avoid the commitment in question.

This means that we need to lớn create the reason for saying no before we need it—we need a decision making structure, or “rules” to guide us so that we don’t have to agonize over every invitation.

For example, one rule I have for myself is that I don’t go out more than two nights in a given week, because I know that when I bởi vì this, I get cranky, tired, và run down. So if someone asks me about a third evening one week, I have the structure I need khổng lồ tell them I’m not available (but thank you for asking!). Similarly, I only meet people during the workday for lunch or coffee two times per week, I only do two speaking engagements a month, và I only vì one phone interview a day.

In addition to making rules for myself, I block out time on my calendar for things lượt thích writing (in the morning, when I’m most productive), hiking (in the afternoon, when I need a break), và for tackling administrative tasks (on Fridays, when I’m most inclined to want lớn just tick stuff off my list). This means that a lot of time on my calendar is blocked out, which can be really annoying to people who are trying lớn make an appointment with me. At the same time, however, blocking time out for the things I need to bởi to feel calm makes it totally clear to lớn me when I’m just not available. This makes it much easier khổng lồ give good no.

Finally, if I’m available to bởi vì something, I don’t say yes before asking myself a very important question: bởi vì I want to vì chưng this thing, or is it that I feel I “should”? Will saying “yes” bring me joy or meaning? Or will I feel dread or regret when this particular event or task rolls around? I’ve learned khổng lồ notice when I’m glad I said “yes”; it has helped me realize how much happiness I get from helping other people. (I always try khổng lồ help my friends’ children with their college applications, for example. So fun.)

One of the joys of middle age is that I now feel confident that if I bởi vì only the things that I really feel compelled to vày (rather than the things I used to bởi because I thought I “should” do), I over up contributing more. If I find myself considering an invitation because I’m worried about what other people think of me, or because I think it will “look good on my resume,” I just say no.

Step Two: Say no

The Sweet Spot: How to lớn Find Your Groove at trang chủ and Work (forthcoming in January of 2015) và Raising Happiness."/>Christine Carter, Ph.D., is a Senior Fellow at the GGSC. She is the author of The Sweet Spot: How to Find Your Groove at home and Work (forthcoming in January of 2015) & Raising Happiness.

I’ve found it incredibly helpful to lớn have go-to ways lớn just say no. I mostly use Renee’s “I’m already booked” strategy (see below), because that is most often the reason I can’t vì chưng something. Here are some other tactics—21, count ‘em!—that work for me:

1. Vague but effective: “Thank you for asking, but that isn’t going khổng lồ work out for me.”

2. It’s not personal: “Thank you for asking, but I’m not doing any interviews while I’m writing my book.”

3. Ask me later: “I want to vị that, but I’m not available until April. Will you ask me again then?”

4. Let me hook you up: “I can’t vày it, but I’ll bet Shelly can. I’ll ask her for you.”

5. Keep trying: “None of those dates work for me, but I would love to lớn see you. Send me some more dates.”

6. Try me last minute: “I can’t put anything else on my calendar this month, but I’d love to vị that with you sometime. Will you hotline me right before you go again?”

7. Gratitude: “Thank you so much for your enthusiasm and support! I’m sorry I’m not able to help you at this time.”

8. Give Dad a chance: “You know, I feel like moms are always getting to vì chưng the holiday parties at school. Let’s ask Dad if he wants khổng lồ help this year.”

9. 5-minute favor: “I can’t speak at your event, but I will help you promote it on my blog.”

I also asked my friends Renee Trudeau & Katrina Alcorn—two people who’ve honed their ability to say no well—for their favorite go-to ways to say no. Here are Renee’s favorite ways:

10. Just No: “Thanks, I’ll have to lớn pass on that.” (Say it, then shut up.)

11. Gracious: “I really appreciate you asking me, but my time is already committed.”

12. I’m Sorry: “I wish I could, but it’s just not going khổng lồ work right now.”

13. It’s Someone Else’s Decision: “I promised my coach (therapist, husband, etc.) I wouldn’t take on any more projects right now. I’m working on creating more balance in my life.”

14. My Family is the Reason: “Thanks so much for the invite, that’s the day of my son’s soccer game, and I never miss those.”

15. I Know Someone Else: “I just don’t have time right now. Let me recommend someone who may be able to help you.”

16. I’m Already Booked: “I appreciate you thinking of me, but I’m afraid I’m already booked that day.”

17. Setting Boundaries: “Let me tell you what I can do…” Then limit the commitment to what will be comfortable for you.

18. Not No, But Not Yes: “Let me think about it, và I’ll get back to lớn you.”

(Renee’s danh sách is from her book The Mother’s Guide to lớn Self-Renewal.)

And here are the additional ways that Katrina most often says no:

19. Say nothing: “Not all requests require an answer. It feels rude to lớn ignore a request, but sometimes it’s the best way for everyone to lớn save face.”

20. Let it all hang out: “Recently my daughter got injured in thể hình class. It was a week of visits khổng lồ the ER, the concussion clinic, specialists, etc. I decided lớn just tell people what was going on, which sort of shut down the requests for a bit.”

21. I’m “maxed out”: “We need a ‘safety word’ for saying no—an easy way khổng lồ tell people that we can’t/won’t do the thing they are requesting, but that it’s not personal. One convenient thing about authoring a book called Maxed Out is that now I can say ‘I’m maxed out’ & people who are familiar with the book know I’m asking them lớn respect that I’m taking care of myself, & that I also respect their need khổng lồ take care of themselves.”

Step 3: Don’t look back

Plenty of research suggests that when we make a decision in a way that allows us lớn change our minds later, we tend khổng lồ be a lot less happy with the decisions that we make. So once we decline an invitation, we need to make an effort lớn focus on the good that will come from saying no, not the regret or guilt we feel about turning down an offer. Perhaps we will be better rested because we didn’t go to a party, or we’ll feel less resentful because we let someone else help out. Maybe saying no khổng lồ one thing frees up time for another (more joyful) activity. Whatever the case may be, focus on the positive outcome of your effort to lớn give good no.

Because that is what all this saying no is really about: Allowing ourselves khổng lồ really enjoy what we are doing in the moment, whatever that might be.

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